Most of the side effects are mild and short-lived. Researchers are now looking at whether other reactions after vaccination are related to coronary vaccines.
Many people notice that they have received a coronary vaccine. Pain at the injection site, fever, and headache are common. These are mild and short-lived side effects.
Other reactions have also occurred after vaccination. Among other things, many cases of bleeding disorders have been reported in women.
– We will identify all reactions as may they have a connection to the vaccine, says vaccine researcher Gunnveig Grødeland. He works at the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine at the University of Oslo.
The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines for use in Norway are the so-called mRNA vaccines.
Here, Grødeland answers questions about mRNA vaccines and side effects:
– What substances in mRNA vaccines can cause side effects?
– There are examples of PEG (polyethylene glycol) causing severe allergic reactions after vaccination. PEG is found in toothpastes, skin creams, various foods, and cosmetic products. There are people with known and serious allergies who have had this reaction.
Serious allergic reactions can occur immediately after vaccination. That is why everyone waits in the room for a while after vaccination. People with known and severe allergies were recommended early on to take the vaccine during heightened preparedness for emergencies (for example, in the hospital). In the worst case, if you are in anaphylactic shock, prompt treatment will ensure that the danger is over in no time.
– Can vaccines give the same symptoms as the illness COVID-19?
– No. Vaccines cannot cause infection or disease caused by the sars-cov-2 virus. Therefore, it is not possible to get covid for a long time after vaccination. And it does not lose the sense of smell and taste. It can have side effects like fever, fatigue, and other flu-like symptoms. They usually go away after a day or two.
– Can the so-called nail protein that comes with the vaccine cause problems?
– No, as far as we know today.
There is a difference between the use of spikes in the vaccine and the nail protein in the virus. Using only part of the virus in the vaccine gives us the opportunity to better control how immune responses are formed. Then we can also better predict what side effects may occur.
– Can vaccines accelerate disease in the body?
– Basically no. However, vaccination may have increased inflammation in people who have a chronic, uncontrolled infection (such as arthritis). It has been observed in some very rare cases. And it happens very rarely, even in people with chronic diseases. Vaccination is an important protection against covid-19, also for this group.
– Can the fat capsule around the vaccine cause side effects?
– No study suggests that. And there are more than 1 billion mRNA vaccines so far in the world. However, menstrual disorders and postmenopausal bleeding have been observed in several locations. Here we still do not have a clear understanding of the cause.
– Are there problems related to substances in mRNA vaccines?
– In fact, no connection has been found yet. We see a number of transient side effects, especially after vaccination after the second dose of Moderna and Pfizer. In extremely rare cases, some people get heart / pericarditis, especially after the Moderna vaccine. Therefore, it is now recommended that men under the age of 30 take the Pfizer vaccine. It is mainly younger men who have contracted this inflammation after vaccination. There are no known long-term negative effects of any of the mRNA vaccines.
– In Norway, have you chosen to offer a dose of vaccine to the 12-15 age group?
– We have seen that young people in some cases can develop prolonged covid, in the form of reduced taste and smell, even after an infection that they hardly notice. Giving just 1 dose reduces the chance of side effects. At the same time, it provides protection against the side effects of infection. It is rare for young people between the ages of 12 and 15 to have such side effects, and even rarer for younger children to experience them. One dose of vaccine can still be a good additional safety for young people over 12 years of age.
– What is the difference between vaccinating an 8-year-old child and a 12-year-old child?
– It is something individual and depends on the child. But the younger the child, the more different the immune system will be from an adult. It is highly unlikely that both a healthy 8-year-old and a healthy 12-year-old will contract severe covid-19 after a possible sars-cov-2 infection. Both of you are likely to get only mild or no illness after infection. The big difference is that a 12-year-old’s movement pattern carries a higher risk of infection. And the 12-year-old may have started to hit puberty. The biology of our body begins to look more like adults when it has gone through puberty. It can also affect the immune system.
Adverse reactions in children 12 to 15 years of age gave a similar adverse reaction profile to adults in clinical trials.