A cancer vaccine may be the next breakthrough

A vaccination could advance cancer treatment. 

Scientists foresee additional vaccines in five years after decades of modest success.

These vaccines decrease tumors and prevent cancer recurrence, not prevent sickness. 

These investigational medicines target breast, lung, and melanoma, with gains reported this year for pancreatic cancer. 

Now we need to get it to work better," said Expert, who leads a National Cancer Institute laboratory that studies immune medicines, including cancer vaccines. 

Scientists now grasp cancer's immune system evasion. Cancer vaccines, like other immunotherapies, strengthen the immune system to fight cancer cells. 

Some new ones use mRNA, originally created for cancer but first used for COVID-19 vaccinations. 

Expert said a vaccination must instruct T cells to recognize cancer as hazardous. T cells may search the body for threats after training.

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