Vaccine prepares frog microbiome for deadly chytrid fungus.

The microbiome—a host's beneficial bacteria & fungus—can modify the immune response, but how major illness vaccinations affect it is uncertain.

Penn State researchers found that a new frog vaccine against the deadly chytrid fungus changes the microbiota, making frogs more resistant.

 A June 12 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B special issue suggests the microbiota reaction may be an overlooked vaccine effectiveness element. 

Hundreds of frog species have died from chytrid fungus. Fungus kills sensitive species' skin.

Chytrid is one of the worst, if not the worst, pathogen for wildlife conservation in recent history.

 "We found that, in some cases, vaccines can induce a protective shift in the microbiome,

 This suggests that carefully manipulating the microbiome could be used as part of a broader strategy to help amphibians, & perhaps other vertebrates.

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